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On The Evolution Theory: The Argument

Published on 02 June 2014, by M. Tomazy.
In order to understand the argument between the evolutionists and the creationists, some terms must be initially defined.
- Natural Selection: beneficial genetic mutations will be preserved as they maintain survive, however other unwanted mutations appear but they will not pass next generations because the body/system will not be able to survive within surrounding environment.
- Ancestor: Predecessor / Parent / Progenitor.
-Vestigial: Nonfunctional part or organ (e.g, additional human finger, human tail which are considered as congenital anomalies)
- Irreducible Complex System (sometimes referred as Irreducible Complexity) : Certain system/organ is composed of multiple parts which act integrally together to achieve function. Darwin hypothesized that if part(s) is/are missed, the entire system will be stopped/dysfunctioned.

- The mode of the process: Darwin wrote: "Natural selection acts only by taking advantage of slight successive variations; she can never take a great and sudden leap, but must advance by short and sure, though slow steps." [1] So he hypothesized that the evolution process is slow gradual one and sure, i.e, the evolution process will never be sudden and leapy neither big/great change (in form of mutations) would occur in short period.

Theory and Fact?
It is essential to differentiate between theory and fact. Theory is logic hypothesis in order to explain the fact. However, Approved theories are considered to be facts. For example, heliocentricism is theory settled by Galileo Galilei (1564 AD-1642 AD), in which the earth and other solar planets are moving around relatively stationary planet (Sun) at the center of Solar System in elliptic manner. The heliocentrical theory is fact now as Solar System can be directly visualized and astronauts reached space.

Is the evolution theory fact?
Since the evolution theory runs against, at least, Abrahamic religions which confirms the presence of creator (god), Clergy side-by-side with religious persons –they are termed as "crationists"– strongly opposed the evolution theory or Darwinism. However, Atheists welcomed the theory and it even aroused excitement among them and communist governments. Nevertheless, the theory has been modified comparing with Darwinian basic theory and it is termed "Modern Evolution Theory".
Biologists found the evolution is the only explanation to describe many biological and anthropological developments, while others  –especially molecular and cellular biologists– found it unable to fit developments on the molecular levels.

The origin of Life according to evolutionist scientist [2]
In the 1930s, a Russian scientist, Alexander Oparin, hypothesized that life began in the oceans on early earth between 3.9 to 3.5 billion years ago. He suggested that first, simple organic molecules containing carbon formed. Energy from the sun, lightning, and earth's heat triggered chemical reactions to produce small organic molecules from substances present in the atmosphere. These molecules were organized by chance into complex organic molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids that are essential to life.

The Human Tail– An example[3]:
A radiogram of the sacral region of a six-year old girl with an atavistic tail. The tail was perfectly midline and protruded form the lower back as a soft appendage. The five normal sacral vertebrae are indicated in light (image reproduced from Bar-Maor et al. 1980, )
blue and numbered; the three coccygeal tail vertebrae are indicated in light yellow. The entire coccyx (usually three or four tiny fused vertebrae) is normally the same size as the fifth sacral vertebrae. In this same study, the surgeons reported two other cases of an atavistic human tail, one with three tail vertebrae, one with five. All were benign, and only one was surgically "corrected" for cosmetic reasons

Theory Limitations:
-The Fossil Record[4]
   The lack of evidence for evolution in the fossil record is a challenge for the evolution theory. According to the theory of evolution, every living species has sprung from a predecessor. Small, gradual changes over millions of years have transformed previously existing species into new ones.
If this is the case, then numerous intermediary species must have lived and left behind fossils. In fact, the number of fossils of intermediary species should be greater than that of remains of present species of animals. For instance, many half-fish/half-reptile or half-ape/half-human fossils should have been found. Yet, more than 140 years of searching has not even revealed one transitional species. In contrast to evolutionists' claims, life has always appeared suddenly and fully formed in the fossil record.
A famous British paleontologist, Derek V. Ager, writes in "The Nature of the Fossil Record" even though he is an evolutionist:
The point emerges that if we examine the fossil record in detail, whether at the level of orders or of species, we find-over and over again-not gradual evolution, but the sudden explosion of one group at the expense of another.
Another evolutionist paleontologist Mark Czarnecki comments in his book "The Revival of the Creationist Crusade" as follows:
A major problem in proving the theory has been the fossil record; the imprints of vanished species preserved in the earth's geological formations. This record has never revealed traces of Darwin's hypothetical intermediate variants - instead species appear and disappear abruptly.

-Molecular Biology[5]:
    Molecular biologist Michael Denton wrote, "Although the tiniest bacterial cells are incredibly small, weighing less than 10/1000,000,000,000 grams, each is in effect a veritable micro-miniaturized factory containing thousands of exquisitely designed pieces of intricate molecular machinery, made up altogether of one hundred thousand million atoms, far more complicated than any machinery built by man and absolutely without parallel in the non-living world."

And we don't need a microscope to observe irreducible complexity. The eye, the ear and the heart are all examples of irreducible complexity, though they were not recognized as such in Darwin's day. Nevertheless, Darwin confessed, "To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree."

Modern evolution theory is the only explanation for many biological and natural phenomena, but still unable to explain others, especially those on microscopic levels. Nevertheless, this limitation might be due to lack of enough knowledge about biochemical processes especially among unicellular micro-organisms. So far, Any theory should not be proved by examples. On the contrary, Theory must be able to explain natural habit/fact in regular manner with no or few irregularities.

[1] Charles Darwin, "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life," 1859, p. 162. - See more at:

[2] Al-Balagh website:

[3] The Talk Origin Archive:

[4] Al-Balagh website: